Microsoft provides the comparison information:
-Team Foundation Version Control (TFVC) is a centralized version control system. Typically, Team members have only one version of each file on their dev machines. Historical data is maintained only on the server. Branches are path-based and created on the server._
Git is a decentralized version control system. Each developer has a copy of the entire source repository on their dev machine. Developers can commit each set of changes on their dv machine and perform version control operations such as history and compare without a network connect.
See detail information here: Use version control.